The following table illustrates the differences between the Risk/Needs/Responsivity (RNR) model and the Development/Trait/State (DTS) model.

Concept  RNR Model DTS Model
Risk  Risk is static Risk has Development, Trait, and State components
Needs Focus treatment on criminogenic Needs such as housing, employment, drug use, finances, relationships, and attitudes Treating Needs will tend to create temporary (State) changes in risk
General Responsivity Focus primary treatment efforts on criminogenic needs Focus on criminogenic Needs to create temporary risk reductions and focus on Developmental and Trait issues to create lasting change
Specific Responsivity Tailor the treatments to the offender Tailor the treatments to the offender’s Development, Trait, and State
Opportunity Not addressed in RNR model Opportunity factors affect the State of criminal propensity and must be controlled. Reduce opportunity and monitor rapidly changing psychological states to prevent recidivism.
Development Not assessed in RNR model Physical and mental development creates important changes in risk levels over time
Causal model Criminal behavior is learned or is caused by strains Criminal behavior is natural, and variation is a function  of life course development, Trait and State.
Treatment model Social learning.  Use case management model from treatment literature Control needs to be taught.  Use response to  intervention (RTI) model from education literature
Research Strategy Prove that offender risk is dynamic using group level experiments Assess the dynamics of offender risk using single case  research design